146 Reasons Why Sugar Is Ruining Your Health

 

By Nancy Appleton, Ph.D.

www.nancyappleton.com

 

Author of LICK THE SUGAR HABIT and LICK THE SUGAR HABIT SUGAR COUNTER.

 

 

1.  Sugar can suppress the immune system.

2.  Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body.

3.  Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children.

4.  Sugar can produce a significant rise in triglycerides.

5.  Sugar contributes to the reduction in defense against bacterial infection (infectious diseases).

6.  Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you loose.

7.  Sugar reduces high density lipoproteins.

8.  Sugar leads to chromium deficiency.

9   Sugar leads to cancer of the ovaries.

10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose.

11. Sugar causes copper deficiency.

12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium.

13. Sugar can weaken eyesight.

14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia.                                

16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive tract.

17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children.

18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease.

19. Sugar can cause premature aging.

20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism.

21. Sugar can cause tooth decay.

22. Sugar contributes to obesity

23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.

24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in person with gastric or duodenal ulcers.

25. Sugar can cause arthritis.

26. Sugar can cause asthma.

27. Sugar greatly assists the uncontrolled growth of Candida Albicans (yeast infections).

28. Sugar can cause gallstones.

29. Sugar can cause heart disease.

30. Sugar can cause appendicitis.

31. Sugar can cause multiple sclerosis.

32. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids.

33. Sugar can cause varicose veins.

34. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users.

35. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease.

36. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis.

37. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity.

38. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity.

39. Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E (alpha-Tocopherol  in the blood.

40. Sugar can decrease growth hormone.

41. Sugar can increase cholesterol.

42. Sugar can increase the systolic blood pressure.

43. Sugar can cause drowsiness and decreased activity in children.

44. High sugar intake increases advanced glycation end products (AGEs)(Sugar bound non-enzymatically to protein)

45. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein.

46. Sugar causes food allergies.

47. Sugar can contribute to diabetes.

48. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy.

49. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children.

50. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease.

51. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA

52. Sugar can change the structure of protein.

53. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen.

54. Sugar can cause cataracts.

55. Sugar can cause emphysema.

56. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis.

57. Sugar can promote an elevation of low density lipoproteins (LDL).

58. High sugar intake can impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in the body.

59. Sugar lowers the enzymes ability to function.

60. Sugar intake is higher in people with Parkinson’s disease.

61. Sugar can cause a permanent altering the way the proteins act in the body.

62. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide.

63. Sugar can increase the amount of liver fat.

64. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney.

65. Sugar can damage the pancreas.

66. Sugar can increase the body's fluid retention.

67. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement.

68. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness).

69. Sugar can compromise the lining of the capillaries.

70. Sugar can make the tendons more brittle.

71. Sugar can cause headaches, including migraine.

72. Sugar plays a role in pancreatic cancer in women.

73. Sugar can adversely affect school children's grades and cause learning disorders..

74. Sugar can cause an increase in delta, alpha, and theta brain waves.

75. Sugar can cause depression.

76. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer.

77. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion).

78. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout.

79. Sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test over the ingestion of complex carbohydrates.

80. Sugar can increase the insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to    low sugar diets. 

81  High refined sugar diet reduces learning capacity.

82. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood  proteins, albumin, and lipoproteins, which may reduce the body’s ability to handle fat and cholesterol.

83.  Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease.

84. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness.

85. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance; some hormones become underactive and others become overactive.

86. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones.

87. Sugar can lead to the hypothalamus to become highly sensitive to a large variety of stimuli.

88. Sugar can lead to dizziness.

89. Diets high in sugar can cause free radicals and oxidative stress.

90. High sucrose diets of subjects with peripheral vascular disease significantly increases platelet adhesion.

91. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer.

92. Sugar feeds cancer.

93. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant.

94. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents.

95. Sugar slows food's travel time through the gastrointestinal tract.

96. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon. This can modify bile to produce cancer-causing compounds and colon cancer.

97.  Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men.

98.  Sugar combines and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more difficult.

99.  Sugar can be a risk factor of gallbladder cancer.

100. Sugar is an addictive substance.

101. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol.

102. Sugar can exacerbate PMS.

103. Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide they produce.

104. Decrease in sugar intake can increase emotional stability.             

105. The body changes sugar into 2 to 5 times more fat in the bloodstream than it does starch.

106. The rapid absorption of sugar promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects.

107. Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

108. Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition.

109. Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function.

110. Sugar has the potential of inducing abnormal metabolic processes in a normal healthy individual and to promote chronic degenerative diseases.

111.. I.Vs (intravenous feedings) of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain.

112. High sucrose intake could be an important risk factor in lung cancer.

113. Sugar increases the risk of polio.

114. High sugar intake can cause epileptic seizures.

115. Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people.

116. In Intensive Care Units, limiting sugar saves lives.

117. Sugar may induce cell death.

118. Sugar can increase the amount of food that you eat.

119. In juvenile rehabilitation camps, when children were put on a low sugar diet, there was a 44% drop in antisocial behavior.

120.  Sugar can lead to prostrate cancer.

121. Sugar dehydrates newborns.

122. Sugar increases the estradiol in young men.

123.  Sugar can cause low birth weight babies.

124. Greater consumption of refined sugar is associated with a worse outcome of schizophrenia

125. Sugar can raise homocysteine levels in the blood stream. 

126. Sweet food items increase the risk of breast cancer. 

127. Sugar is a risk factor in cancer of the small intestine. 

128. Sugar may cause laryngeal cancer.

129. Sugar induces salt and water retention.

130. Sugar may contribute to mild memory loss.

131. As sugar increases in the diet of 10 years olds, there is a linear decrease in the intake of many essential nutrients.

132. Sugar can increase the total amount of food consumed.

133. Exposing a newborn to sugar results in a heightened preference for sucrose relative to water at 6 months and 2 years of age.

134. Sugar causes constipation.

135. Sugar causes varicous veins.

136. Sugar can cause brain decay in prediabetic and diabetic women.

137. Sugar can increase the risk of stomach cancer.

138. Sugar can cause metabolic syndrome.

139. Sugar ingestion by pregnant women increases neural tube defects in embryos.

140. Sugar can be a factor in asthma.

141. The higher the sugar consumption the more chances of getting irritable bowel syndrome.

142. Sugar could affect central reward systems.

143. Sugar can cause cancer of the rectum.

144. Sugar can cause endometrial  cancer.

145. Sugar can cause renal (kidney) cell carcinoma.

146. Sugar can cause liver tumors.

 

1. Sanchez, A., et al. "Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis,"  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Nov 1973;261:1180-1184.

    Bernstein, J., et al. "Depression of Lymphocyte Transformation Following Oral Glucose Ingestion." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.1997;30:613.

2. Couzy, F., et al."Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals," Progressive Food and Nutrition Science 17;1933:65-87.

3. Goldman, J., et al.  "Behavioral Effects of Sucrose on Preschool Children." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.1986;14(4):565-577.

4. Scanto, S. and Yudkin, J. "The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers,"  Postgraduate Medicine Journal. 1969;45:602-607.

5.  Ringsdorf, W., Cheraskin, E. and Ramsay R. "Sucrose,Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease," Dental Survey. 1976;52(12):46-48.

6.  Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M."Glucose and Aging." Scientific American. May 1987:90.  

     Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. "The Role of Glycation in Aging." Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 663:63-67.

7.  Albrink, M. and Ullrich I. H. "Interaction of Dietary Sucrose and Fiber on Serum Lipids in Healthy Young Men Fed High Carbohydrate Diets." American Journal of Clinical  Nutrition. 1986;43:419-428.

    Pamplona, R., et al. “Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis.” Medical Hypotheses. Mar 1993;40(3):174-81.

8.  Kozlovsky, A., et al.  "Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses."  Metabolism. June 1986;35:515-518.

9.  Takahashi, E., Tohoku University School of Medicine, Wholistic Health Digest. October 1982:41.

10. Kelsay, J., et al. "Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women."  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1974;27:926-936.

      Thomas, B. J., et al. “Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to Oral Glucose,” Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition. 1983; 36C(1):49_51.

11. Fields, M.., et al. "Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch Diets," Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983;113:1335-1345.

12. Lemann, J. "Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium." Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. 1976 ;70:236-245.

13. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. Mar 2002;48;25.

      Taub, H. Ed. "Sugar Weakens Eyesight," VM NEWSLETTER;May 1986:6

14. "Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response." The Addiction Letter .Jul 1992:4.

15. Dufty, William. Sugar Blues. (New York:Warner Books, 1975).

16. Ibid.

17. Jones, T. W., et al. “Enhanced Adrenomedullary Response and Increased Susceptibility to Neuroglygopenia: Mechanisms Underlying the Adverse Effect of Sugar Ingestion in Children.” Journal of Pediatrics. Feb 1995;126:171-7.

18. Ibid.

19. Lee, A. T.and Cerami A. "The Role of Glycation in Aging." Annals of the New York Academy of Science.1992;663:63-70.

20. Abrahamson, E. and Peget, A.. Body, Mind and Sugar. (New York:Avon,1977.}

21. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and Youngmee, K. “Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force.” 1986:39.

    Makinen K.K.,et al. “A Descriptive Report of the Effects of a 16_month Xylitol Chewing_Gum Programme Subsequent to a 40_Month Sucrose Gum Programme.” Caries Research. 1998; 32(2)107-12.

   Riva Touger-Decker and Cor van Loveren,Sugars and Dental Caries.”

 

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22. Keen, H., et al. "Nutrient Intake, Adiposity, and Diabetes." British Medical Journal. 1989; 1: 655-658.

23. Tragnone, A. et al. “Dietary Habits as Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.”  Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Jan 1995;7(1):47-51.

24. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous.. (New York;Bantam Books:1974), 129.

25. Darlington, L., Ramsey, N. W. and Mansfield, J. R. "Placebo_Controlled, Blind Study of Dietary Manipulation Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis," Lancet.  Feb 1986;8475(1):236-238.

26. Powers, L. "Sensitivity: You React to What You Eat." Los Angeles Times. Feb. 12, 1985.

Cheng, J., et al.  “Preliminary Clinical Study on the Correlation Between Allergic Rhinitis and Food Factors.” Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi Aug 2002;16(8):393-396.

27. Crook, W. J.  The Yeast Connection. (TN:Professional Books, 1984)..

28. Heaton, K. "The Sweet Road to Gallstones." British Medical Journal. Apr 14, 1984; 288:1103-1104.

    Misciagna, G., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69:120-126.

29. Yudkin, J. "Sugar Consumption and Myocardial Infarction." Lancet..Feb 6, 1971;1(7693):296-297.

Reiser, S. "Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease." Nutritional Health. 1985;203-216.

30. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974).

31. Erlander, S. "The Cause and Cure of Multiple Sclerosis, The Disease to End Disease. Mar 3, 1979;1(3):59-63.

32. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974.)

33. Cleave, T. and Campbell, G. Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine Disease: (Bristol, England, John Wrightand Sons, 1960).

34. Behall, K. "Influence of Estrogen Content of Oral Contraceptives and Consumption of Sucrose on Blood Parameters." Disease Abstracts International. 1982;431-437.         

35. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and K. Youngmee. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force.1986;39:36_38.

36. Tjäderhane, L. and Larmas, M. “A High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats.” Journal of Nutrition. 1998:128:1807-1810.

37. Appleton, N. New York: Healthy Bones. Avery Penguin Putnam:1989.

38. Beck_Nielsen H., Pedersen O., and Schwartz S. “Effects of Diet on the Cellular Insulin Binding and the Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects." Diabetes. 1978;15:289-296 .

39. Mohanty P.  et al. “Glucose Challenge Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by Leucocytes.”Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug 2000; 85(8):2970-2973.

40. Gardner, L. and Reiser, S. "Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol."  Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1982;169:36-40.

41. Reiser, S. "Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease." Nutritional Health. 1985;203:216.

42. Preuss, H. G. “Sugar-Induced Blood Pressure Elevations Over the Lifespan of Three Substrains of Wistar Rats.” J Am Coll of Nutrition, 1998;17(1) 36-37.

43. Behar, D., et al. “Sugar Challenge Testing with Children Considered Behaviorally Sugar Reactive." Nutritional Behavior. 1984;1:277-288.

44. Furth, A. and Harding, J. "Why Sugar Is Bad For You." New Scientist.”Sep 23, 1989;44.

45. Lee AT, Cerami A. “Role of Glycation in Aging.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 21,1992 ;663:63-70.

46. Appleton, N. New York:Lick the Sugar Habit.  (New York:Avery Penguin Putnam:1988).

47. "Sucrose Induces Diabetes in Cat." Federal Protocol. 1974;6(97).

48. Cleave, T.:The Saccharine Disease: (New Canaan Ct: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1974).131.

49. Ibid. 132.

50. Vaccaro O., Ruth, K. J. and Stamler J. “Relationship of Postload Plasma Glucose to Mortality with 19 Year Follow-up.”  Diabetes Care. Oct 15,1992;10:328-334.

Tominaga, M., et al, “Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease, but Not Fasting Glucose.” Diabetes Care. 1999:2(6):920-924.

51. Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. "Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging." Handbook of the Biology of Aging. (New York: Academic Press, 1990.).

52. Monnier, V. M. "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process." Journal of Gerontology 1990:45(4 ):105-110.

53. Dyer, D. G., et al. "Accumulation of Maillard Reaction Products in Skin Collagen in Diabetes and Aging." Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1993:93(6):421-422.

54. Veromann, S.et al.”Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development.” Ophthalmologica. Jul-Aug 2003 ;217(4):302-307.

55. Monnier, V. M. "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process." Journal of Gerontology. 1990:45(4):105-110.

56. Schmidt A.M. et al. “Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products: a mechanism for chronic vascular dysfunction in diabetic vasculopathy and atherosclerosis.” Circ Res.1999 Mar 19;84(5):489-97.

57. Lewis, G. F. and  Steiner, G. “Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of VLDL Production in Humans. Implications for Theinsulin-resistant State.” Diabetes Care. 1996 Apr;19(4):390-3

R. Pamplona, M. .J., et al.  "Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis." Medical Hypotheses. 1990;40:174-181.

58. Ceriello, A. “Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation.” Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.

59. Appleton, Nancy. New York; Lick the Sugar Habit. (New York:Avery Penguin Putnam, 1988).

60. Hellenbrand, W. ”Diet and Parkinson's Disease. A Possible Role for the Past Intake of Specific Nutrients. Results from a Self-administered Food-frequency Questionnaire in a Case-control Study.” Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):644-650 Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M. "Glucose and Aging." Scientific American. May 1987: 90.   

62. Goulart, F. S. "Are You Sugar Smart?" American Fitness.  Mar-Apr 1991: 34-38.

63. Ibid.

64. Yudkin, J., Kang, S. and Bruckdorfer, K. "Effects of High Dietary Sugar."  British Journal of Medicine.  Nov 22, 1980;1396.

65. Goulart, F. S. "Are You Sugar Smart?" American Fitness. March_April 1991: 34-38

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid.

69. Ibid.

70. Nash, J. "Health Contenders." Essence. Jan 1992-23: 79_81.

71. Grand, E. "Food Allergies and Migraine."Lancet. 1979:1:955_959.

72. Michaud, D. ”Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a                           Prospective Study.” J Natl Cancer Inst. Sep 4, 2002 ;94(17):1293-300.

73. Schauss, A.  Diet, Crime and Delinquency. (Berkley Ca; Parker House, 1981).

74. Christensen, L. "The Role of Caffeine and Sugar in Depression." Nutrition Report. Mar 1991;9(3):17-24.

75. Ibid.

76. Cornee, J., et al. "A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France," European Journal of Epidemiology. 1995;11:55-65.

77. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous.(New York:Bantam Books,1974) 129.

78. Ibid, 44

79. Reiser, S., et al. “Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986:43;151-159.

80. Reiser,S., et al. “Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:151-159.

81. Molteni, R, et al. “A High-fat, Refined Sugar Diet Reduces Hippocampal Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neuronal Plasticity, and Learning.” NeuroScience. 2002;112(4):803-814.

82. Monnier, V., “Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process.” Journal of Gerontology. 1990;45:105-111.

83. Frey, J. “Is There Sugar in the Alzheimer’s Disease?” Annales De Biologie Clinique. 2001; 59 (3):253-257.

84. Yudkin, J. "Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes." Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):5-8.

85. Ibid.

86. Blacklock, N. J., "Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone."  Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):9-12.

      Curhan, G., et al. “Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women.” Annals of Internal Medicine. 1998:28:534-340.

87.  Journal of Advanced Medicine. 1994;7(1):51-58.

88.  Ibid

89. Ceriello, A. “Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation.” Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.

90.  Postgraduate Medicine. Sept 1969:45:602-07.

91.  Moerman, C. J., et al. “Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer.” International Journal of Epidemiology. Ap 1993;2(2):207-214.

92.  Quillin, Patrick, “Cancer’s Sweet Tooth.” Nutrition Science News. Ap 2000.

        Rothkopf, M.. Nutrition.  July/Aug 1990;6(4).

93.  Lenders, C. M. “Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake among Pregnant Adolescents.” Journal of Nutrition. Jun 1997;1113-1117.

94.  Ibid.

95. Bostick, R. M., et al. "Sugar, Meat.and Fat Intake and Non-dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women." Cancer Causes & Control. 1994:5:38-53.

96.  Ibid.

      Kruis, W., et al. "Effects of Diets Low and High in Refined Sugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation.” Gut. 1991;32:367-370.

     Ludwig, D. S., et al. “High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, And Obesity.” Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32.

97.  Yudkin, J and Eisa, O. “Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988:32(2):53-55.

98.  Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. "The Role of Glycation in Aging." Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992; 663:63-70.

99.  Moerman, C. et al."Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Gallbladder Tract Cancer." Internat J of Epi. Ap 1993; 22(2):207-214.

100. "Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response." The Addiction Letter. Jul 1992:4.

        Colantuoni, C., et al. “Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence.” Obes Res. Jun 2002 ;10(6):478-488.

101. Ibid.

102. The Edell Health Letter. Sept 1991;7:1.

103. Sunehag, A. L., et al. “Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition” Diabetes. 1999 ;48 7991-8000).

104. Christensen L. et al. “Impact of A Dietary Change on Emotional Distress.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology .1985;94(4):565-79.

105. Nutrition Health Review. Fall 85. Sugar Changes into Fat Faster than Fat.”

106. Ludwig, D. S., et al. “High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity.” Pediatrics.Mar1999;103(3):26-32.

107. Girardi, N.L.” Blunted Catecholamine Responses after Glucose Ingestion in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.” Pediatrics Research. 1995;38:539-542.

        Berdonces, J. L. “Attention Deficit and Infantile Hyperactivity.” Rev Enferm. Jan 2001;4(1)11-4

108. Blacklock, N. J. “Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone.” Nutrition Health. 1987;5(1 & 2):9-17.

109. Lechin, F., et al. “Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans.” Neurophychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):4-11.

110. Fields, M. Journal of the  American College of  Nutrition. Aug 1998;17(4):317-321.

111. Arieff, A. I. Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco. San Jose Mercury; June 12/86. “IVs of Sugar Water Can Cut Off Oxygen to the Brain.”

112. De Stefani, E.“Dietary Sugar and Lung Cancer: a Case Control Study in Uruguay.” Nutrition and Cancer. 1998;31(2):132_7.

113. Sandler, Benjamin P. Diet Prevents Polio.  Milwakuee, WI,:The Lee Foundation for for Nutritional Research, 1951.

114. Murphy, Patricia. “The Role of Sugar in Epileptic Seizures.” Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. May, 2001.

115. Stern, N. & Tuck, M. “Pathogenesis of Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus.” Diabetes Mellitus, a Fundamental and Clinical Test. 2nd Edition, (Phil. A:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000)943-957.

116. Christansen, D. “Critical Care: Sugar Limit Saves Lives.” Science News. June 30, 2001;159:404.

117. Donnini, D. et al. “Glucose May Induce Cell Death through a Free Radical-mediated Mechanism.”Biochem Biohhys Res Commun.  Feb 15, 1996:219(2):412-417.

118. Allen S. Levine, Catherine M. Kotz, and Blake A. Gosnell . “Sugars and Fats: The Neurobiology of Preference “J. Nutr.2003 133:831S-834S.

119. Schoenthaler, S. The Los Angeles Probation Department Diet-Behavior Program: Am Empirical Analysis of Six Institutional Settings. Int J Biosocial Res 5(2):88-89.

120. Deneo-Pellegrini H,. et al.Foods, Nutrients and Prostate cancer: a Case-control study in Uruguay. Br J Cancer. 1999 May;80(3-4):591-7.

121. “Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes. 1999 Apr;48(4):791-800.

122. Yudkin, J. and Eisa, O.   “Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of  Nutrition and  Metabolism. 1988;32(2):53-5.

123. Lenders, C. M. “Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake Among Pregnant Adolescents.” Journal of Nutrition 128; 1998::807-1810.

124. . Peet, M. “International Variations in the Outcome of Schizophrenia and the Prevalence of Depression in Relation to National Dietary Practices: An Ecological

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125. Fonseca, V. et al.  “Effects of a High-fat-sucrose Diet on Enzymes in Homosysteine Metabolism in the Rat.” Metabolism. 200; 49:736-41.

126. Potischman, N, et.al.  “Increased Risk of Early-stage Breast Cancer Related to Consumption of Sweet Foods among Women Less than Age 45 in the United States." Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Dec;13(10):937-46.

127.Negri. E. et al. “Risk Factors for Adenocarcinoma of the Small Intestine.”

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128.Bosetti, C. et al. “Food Groups and Laryngeal Cancer Risk: A Case-control Study from Italy and Switzerland.” International Journal of Cancer, 2002:100(3): 355-358.

129. Shannon, M. “An Empathetic Look at Overweight.”CCL Family Found.” Nov-Dec.1993. 20(3):3-5.

130. Harry G. Preuss, M.D., of Georgetown University Medical School

131., “Health  After 50.” Johns Hopkins Medical Letter. May, 1994.

132. Allen, S. "Sugars and Fats: The Neurobiology of Preference." Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133:831S-834S.

133. Booth,  D.A.M. etc al. “Sweetness and Food Selection: Measurement of Sweeteners’ Effects on Acceptance.” Sweetness. Dobbing, J., Ed., (London:Springer-Verlag, 1987).

134. Cleve, T.L  On the Causation of Varicose Veins.  Bristol, England, John Wright, 1960.”

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Nancy Appleton

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